*This article will forego the use of ‘written’ in favour of ‘generated’ where AI is used for long-form writing – it is this writer’s opinion that authors using AI are not writers.
AI is here, and it’s not going away.
In fact, Anthropic, an AI safety & research firm, believes that there’s a 10% chance of human-level AI systems being developed in the next decade.
So what do we do about it as creatives? It’s therefore time to examine the ethics of AI in publishing. Should AI-generated writing be embraced as an inevitability, or should it be resisted at all costs?
What exactly is AI writing?
AI-generated content is produced by an online platform (ChatGPT being the most famous) where ‘large language models’ (LLMs) are used to form sentences.
Large language models are algorithms that leverage enormous amounts of data from the internet (and from users’ interactions with the AI tool) to generate responses to the user.
In essence, AI tools see sentences as computational puzzles, predicting the next word in a sentence based on a) what makes logical sense, and b) the nature of the user’s request.
And to be fair, it’s an impressive feat of software engineering.
How does AI writing work?
To use an AI tool like Bard or ChatGPT, the user needs to provide the tool with a prompt or brief. This might be as simple as a question on a specific topic or as complex as a request to generate code.
For example, if the writer wishes to generate a blog on the role of AI in publishing, the user will enter general information as a brief for the AI tool.
This might be an outline of the blog topic (the ethics of AI in publishing), the keyword targeted for SEO purposes (AI in Publishing), wordcount, and more.
The AI tool will then generate the article in less than a couple of minutes. Again, this is genuinely impressive.
Gone are the hours of research and the gathering of statistics – simply feed an AI tool a solid brief and it’ll churn out an article.
The negatives of AI-generated content
This ease-of-use poses the question – why bother writing a first draft when an AI tool can do it far more quickly?
Well, there are a handful of reasons for this.
1) Derivative results
Whilst it’s true that AI-generated writing can be created at scale, high-quality creative writing relies on a solid prompt in order to generate a decent response.
As discussed, AI relies on input. A bad input will result in a bad output. Likewise, derivative ideas will result in derivative prose.
AI or not, bad writers will get caught out. Especially when it comes to generating novels with more literary pretence.
2) Lack of development as a writer
Writing is hard. This is true whether you’re a novelist, copywriter, musician, or otherwise. And the process of drafting, redrafting, and editing is a really important period of learning for writers.
By taking this learning experience away, there are far fewer opportunities for growth. After all, the only way to improve writing skills is by writing.
3) Dubious ethics
The publishing industry simply hasn’t caught up with developments in AI to be able to offer a consensus on its use.
Though some smaller presses have forbidden AI works to be submitted, the larger publishers have been reticent to commit to any formal ethical guidelines.
The Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) has prohibited the listing of AI as an author but makes no mention of an author using AI. Meanwhile, the Alliance of Independent Authors added the following clause to their Code of Standards:
Use of Tools and AI
I edit and curate the output of any tool I use to ensure the text is not discriminatory, libellous, an infringement of copyright or otherwise illegal or illicit. I recognise that it is my job to ensure I am legally compliant, not the AI tool or service I use. I declare use of AI and other tools, where appropriate.
Both are notably coy on the particular details, and the default position of publishers seems to be ‘don’t infringe copyright law’ (of course, copyright law is yet to account for AI’s impact on intellectual property – not in the UK anyway).
Use of AI without disclosure, however, must be condemned as intellectually dishonest.
4) Commodifying the Craft
The ability to generate a body of text at scale commodifies the craft of writing.
We’re not quite at existential levels of threat to writing, but AI writing does pose a number of problems for writers, especially self-published authors.
In a marketplace quickly filling up with ‘get rich quick’ AI-generated texts, AI makes it much harder for upcoming authors to generate trust with readers who, for the most part, want to read authentically-produced literature.
Where AI could be useful for writers
New writers should avoid AI tools at all costs.
As previously discussed, the learning experiences delivered by drafting, editing, publishing, and feedback are precious.
There are a few instances where AI could assist a writer, however, whilst remaining ethical.
1) Social media promotion
Publishers often look to authors to use their own social media platforms to connect with readers.
But not all authors are naturally great at self-promotion. And it can be difficult for less commercially-minded authors (and the neurodivergent) to connect with potential readers.
AI is often used by marketing professionals to generate social media prompts, and there’s no reason that authors couldn’t lean into this to augment (but not replace!) their own promotional activities.
Proofing your own work is never a good idea – one gets too close to their work and tends to skim read.
Ideally, all writers should run their work by an editor, significant other, or beta reader.
I can see Grammarly and/or word processors integrating AI as a proofing tool, without it being ethically problematic.
3) Sentence rephrasing
Sometimes, a sentence just needs a lease of life. Why not ask an AI tool for a number of suggestions? Naturally, the author should always edit this suggestion and take responsibility to avoid plagiarism.
In any case, we’ve all used the synonym tool on Microsoft Word every now and again – this is merely an extension of that.
So, is AI-generated content stealing?
AI-generated writing is not legally stealing. But it is a morally and ethically grey area.
On the face of it, AI’s large language models learn from existing content. Therefore, surely an AI’s output is influenced by previously written work and is therefore plagiarising.
Unfortunately, this isn’t solid ground. Large language models are made up by petabytes worth of data and billions of variations in outputs.
The odds of creating something plagiarised is incredibly low. This doesn’t mean it’s impossible, but it’s no more likely to plagiarise than a writer who read a book 10-15 years ago and happened across a familiar sentence.
Of course, it is possible to get an AI tool to intentionally plagiarise. I experimented with this recently, tricking ChatGPT into producing the following:
This is pretty shocking, and whilst using an AI tool to generate writing isn’t illegal in itself, it does validate a number of concerns in the writing community about intellectual property infringements.
This example was, of course, intentionally prompted by myself, but it does demonstrate how easy it is to circumvent ChatGPT’s (paper thin) protections against such things.
How can writers protect themselves?
Right now, the development of AI has gone largely unchecked. However, legislation will come. Only recently, Sam Altman – the CEO of OpenAI (ChatGPT’s creator) – testified to the United States Congress about AI capabilities both now and in the future.
In the meantime, authors can do a combination of the following.
Make concerted use of existing copyright laws
BookBeaver has an excellent resource on publishing and copyright. Using the © symbol on your copyright page will assert your willingness to take legal action.
Keep up to date with developments in AI
Knowing the capabilities of AI will equip you with the knowledge to stay ahead of the curve. This is especially important for copywriters and marketing professionals, but authors can benefit from this too.
Lean into your writing style
AI-generated writing can still suffer from vague and generic ‘telling rather than showing’ writing style.
As an author, you’re already a uniquely creative person. So, develop your writing style. Write like nobody else does. It’ll be far harder for an AI tool to pass it off as another’s work.
The Society of Authors has some sensible suggestions around authorial consent as an opt-in process and a legal requirement for AI developers to make public the data sources used to train their models.
However, a colleague at work (coincidentally a machine learning expert) has cast doubt on the practicality of enforcing an opt-in process like this.
An author can by all means object to their writing from being scraped off the internet, he argued, but bloggers, reviewers, social media, and websites like Goodreads will inevitably include contents of books.
Large language models can (and will) scrape this information because it’s in the public domain. From here, it’s entirely possible for AI to stitch together details around an author’s work.
The issue of theft is a lot more complex and nuanced than is currently being debated across social media. Regardless, the future role and ethics of AI in publishing is an uncertain one and there are a number of very valid concerns on behalf of creatives that must be answered by the big tech companies producing these tools.
Still, it’s an interesting topic of conversation and it’ll be interesting to see how the legal world deals with AI and copyright laws moving forward.
May calm heads prevail.